the question is:
From the electronic arrangement of the 3 elements involved here, Cl and O bond to N. Nitrogen is quite sophisticated with bonding options and wants to fill its 2 level orbitals with 8 electrons. It has 5 of them. It can share 2 of them with oxygen by double bond, which makes oxygen very happy. It can pick up more for simple bonding with chlorine, which makes chlorine happy.
To do this, Nitrogen goes to his textbook and realizes that a double bond requires a hybrid orbital arrangement called sp2. It is a combination of the 2 and 2 of the 3 p2 orbitals.
The third p2 orbital will be used “as is”. In space, the sp2 orbit is planar (in a plane), while the p2 orbit is above and below the plane. One of the sp2 orbitals will overlap an sp2 orbital of oxygen (what is good for nitrogen is good for oxygen), oxygen will share an electron with nitrogen through the p2 orbital. Nitrogen will bond to chlorine with a second sp2 orbital. The last one is not used and contains 2 electrons.
Morale: You need to know the “usual suspects” when it comes to hybrid orbitals and how the bonds will be made to keep the atoms happy. I hope you are happy too.
first you need to know how many shared pairs there are.
shared pairs = 1/2 (necessary electrons – valence electrons)
is it the same or
(add the lone pair electrons so that each atom has 8 electrons assigned to it)
to choose the best, you need to assign formal charges
Cl-N=O has a formal charge of +2
Cl=NO has a formal charge of 0, so it’s the best structure – but you don’t need that information.
Cl=NO N must have 1 pair of electrons to complete the octet
the molecule is AX2E which is bent
(x2 = 2 electron regions, E = single electron pair)
with angles ~120 degrees
Source(s): university chemistry